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|Title: ||Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in baby foods and analysis of interactive cyto- and genotoxic effects in a human intestinal cell line|
|Authors: ||Tavares, Ana|
Silva, Maria João
|Keywords: ||Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A|
|Issue Date: ||1-Jun-2012|
|Publisher: ||Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP|
|Abstract: ||Mycotoxins are natural fungal metabolites and food contaminants with potential to cause severe acute and chronic conditions. Food contamination with mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AF) and ochratoxin A (OTA) have been causing great concern, especially due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Children are especially vulnerable to the deleterious effects of these mycotoxins due to their physiological immaturity and high metabolic rate. Previous studies showed the co-occurrence of low concentrations of aflatoxins and OTA in baby foods. However, studies addressing potential interactive cyto- and genotoxic effects between these toxins are still scarce. In the present study we aimed to develop and validate a method for detection and quantification of total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2), AFM1 and OTA, and to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of mixtures of AFM1 and OTA, comparatively to their individual effects, in a human-derived intestinal cell line.
A method based on immunoaffinity column cleanup and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD), was applied and validated for total aflatoxins, AFM1 and OTA. The method was adequate for the analysis of these mycotoxins in baby foods and met the requirements of validation and quality control. The application of the method to a small set of baby foods marketed in Portugal showed an absence of quantifiable amounts of these mycotoxins.
The individual and combined cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFM1 and OTA were characterized in Caco-2 cells using the Neutral Red and the Comet assays, respectively. A dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed after individual exposure to OTA and AFM1, and the IC50 values were determined. The cytotoxic effect observed for several AFM1 and OTA mixtures was compared to the expected effect predicted by concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) conceptual models, using the MIXTOX model. A preliminary approach regarding the total data pool and considering the CA model as the most conservative model, pointed to an antagonistic cytotoxic effect caused by the mixture of both mycotoxins. However, a dose level deviation was observed after IA modelling, reflecting antagonism at low dose levels and synergism at higher dose levels. To better support data modelling, further cytotoxicity results from mixtures will be obtained and analyzed. To which respects the genotoxic effects, no induction of DNA damage was observed for the tested low doses, neither for individual toxins nor for their mixtures.
The present study reinforces the relevance of exploring possible interactive adverse effects of mycotoxins that can contaminate foodstuff and thus having impact in human health. Future studies will face the challenge of understanding the mode of action of such mycotoxins when in mixture, in order to try predicting their effects.|
|Appears in Collections:||DGH - Apresentações orais em encontros internacionais|
DAN - Apresentações orais em encontros internacionais
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