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|Title: ||Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2010. Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)|
|Authors: ||EARS-Net Management Team & National representatives of EARS-Net|
|Keywords: ||Resistência aos Antimicrobianos|
|Issue Date: ||2011|
|Publisher: ||European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control|
|Abstract: ||Antimicrobial resistance data reported to EARS-Net by 28 countries in 2010 and trend analyses including EARSS data from previous years, show that the Europewide increase of antimicrobial resistance observed in Escherichia coli during recent years is continuing unimpeded. The highest resistance proportions in E. coli were reported for aminopenicillins ranging up to 83 %. Despite the already high level of resistance the increase continues even in countries presenting resistance well above 50 %. The percentage of third-generation cephalosporin resistance reported among E. coli isolates has increased significantly over the last four years in half of the reporting countries, while a decreasing trend was observed in only one country. This resistance is directly linked to the high proportions (65–100 %) of ESBL-positives among cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates reported in 2010. A high frequency of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed in southern, central and eastern Europe. In half of the reporting countries, the proportion of multiresistant K. pneumoniae isolates (combined resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides) was above 10 % and five countries show an increasing trend of carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae. Carbapenems have been widely used in many countries due to the increasing rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae with a consequent impact on the emergence of carbapenemase production (VIM, KPC and NDM-1).
Other trends in the occurrence of resistance reported to EARS-Net bring hope that national efforts on infection control and efforts targeted at containment of resistance may in some cases bring the development of resistance to a halt, or even reverse undesirable resistance trends, as exemplified by the development for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Even though the proportion of MRSA among S. aureus is still above 25 % in eight out of 28 countries, the occurrence of MRSA is stabilising or decreasing in some countries and a sustained decrease has been observed in Austria, France, Ireland, Latvia, the UK and Cyprus. Furthermore, the United Kingdom has shown a consistent reduction of resistant proportions in K. pneumoniae for all antimicrobial classes under surveillance, and in a few countries (Germany, Greece, Italy and the UK) the efforts to control glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium seem to be successful and resulting in a continuous decrease of proportions of resistant isolates. Meanwhile, high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis is stabilising in Europe at a level of 25–50%.
For Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-susceptibility to penicillin remains generally stable in Europe and non-susceptibility to macrolides has declined in five countries while an increasing trend was observed in only one country. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, high proportions of resistance to fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and combined resistance have been reported by many countries, especially in southern and eastern Europe. For several antimicrobial and pathogen combinations, e.g. fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and for MRSA, a north to south gradient is evident in Europe. In general, lower resistance proportions are reported in the north and higher proportions in the south of Europe. This is likely to be a reflection of differences in infection control practices, presence or absence of legislation regarding prescription of antimicrobial drugs. However, for K. pneumoniae, increasing trends of resistance to specific antimicrobial classes and of multiresistance have also been observed in northern European countries, like Denmark and Norway, which traditionally have a prudent approach to antimicrobial use.
In addition to the regular trend analysis and situation overview, this 2010 EARS-Net report contains a focus chapter providing in-depth analysis for carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. Results from susceptibility testing to carbapenems for these two pathogens reported since 2005, reveal a significant decrease of susceptibility to carbapenems in invasive K. pneumoniae over the period 2005–2010. Carbapenems are some of the few effective antimicrobials for the treatment of infections caused by bacteria that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and thus resistance to carbapenems leaves very few therapeutic options available.
Based on EARS-Net data, the antimicrobial resistance situation in Europe displays large variation depending on pathogen type, antimicrobial substance and geographical region. Besides evidence of stabilisation of the situation for some pathogens (e.g. MRSA) in a number of countries, the data show the unimpeded decline of antimicrobial susceptibility in other major pathogens (e.g. E. coli) and the alarming emergence of carbapenem resistance in K. pneumonia, leading to an unfortunate loss of antimicrobial treatment options.|
|Description: ||National institutions/organisations
participating in EARS-Net: Portugal - National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge: Manuela Caniça; Vera Manageiro|
|Peer Reviewed: ||yes|
|Appears in Collections:||DDI - Relatórios científicos e técnicos|
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