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|Title: ||Characterization of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in São Paulo city, Brazil|
|Authors: ||Mendes, Natália H|
Melo, Fernando A.F.
Santos, Adolfo C.B.
Pandolfi, José R.C.
Almeida, Elisabete A.
Cardoso, Rosilene F.
Johansen, Faber K.
Espanha, Lívia G.
Leite, Sergio R.A.
Leite, Clarice Q.F.
|Keywords: ||Mycobacterium Tuberculosis|
|Issue Date: ||2011|
|Publisher: ||BioMed Central|
|Citation: ||BMC Research Notes 2011 4:269|
|Abstract: ||Background: Tuberculosis is a major health problem in São Paulo, Brazil, which is the most populous and one of
the most cosmopolitan cities in South America. To characterize the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
in the population of this city, the genotyping techniques of spoligotyping and MIRU were applied to 93 isolates
collected in two consecutive years from 93 different tuberculosis patients residing in São Paulo city and attending
the Clemente Ferreira Institute (the reference clinic for the treatment of tuberculosis).
Findings: Spoligotyping generated 53 different spoligotype patterns. Fifty-one isolates (54.8%) were grouped into
13 spoligotyping clusters. Seventy- two strains (77.4%) showed spoligotypes described in the international
databases (SpolDB4, SITVIT), and 21 (22.6%) showed unidentified patterns. The most frequent spoligotype families
were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) (26 isolates), followed by the T family (24 isolates) and Haarlem (H)
(11 isolates), which together accounted for 65.4% of all the isolates. These three families represent the major
genotypes found in Africa, Central America, South America and Europe. Six Spoligo-International-types (designated
SITs by the database) comprised 51.8% (37/72) of all the identified spoligotypes (SIT53, SIT50, SIT42, SIT60, SIT17
and SIT1). Other SITs found in this study indicated the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis, reflecting the
remarkable ethnic diversity of São Paulo city inhabitants. The MIRU technique was more discriminatory and did not
identify any genetic clusters with 100% similarity among the 93 isolates. The allelic analysis showed that MIRU loci
26, 40, 23 and 10 were the most discriminatory. When MIRU and spoligotyping techniques were combined, all
isolates grouped in the 13 spoligotyping clusters were separated.
Conclusions: Our data indicated the genomic stability of over 50% of spoligotypes identified in São Paulo and the
great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates in the remaining SITs, reflecting the large ethnic mix of the São
Paulo city inhabitants. The results also indicated that in this city, M. tuberculosis isolates acquired drug resistance
independently of genotype and that resistance was more dependent on the selective pressure of treatment failure
and the environmental circumstances of patients.|
|Peer Reviewed: ||yes|
|Publisher version: ||http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/4/269|
|Appears in Collections:||DGH - Artigos em revistas internacionais|
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