Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.18/2108
Título: Occurrence of Estradiol in Environmental Waters. Estradiol: Synthesis, Health Effects and Drug Interactions
Autor: Domingues, Valentina F.
Fernandes, Virgínia C.
Correia-Sá, Luísa
Catarina, Mansilha
Palavras-chave: Estradiol
Água e Solo
Data: 2013
Citação: In Ricco Palmeri, Sal Grimaudo (eds). Estradiol: Synthesis, Health Effects and Drug Interactions. Hauppauge, New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers, 2013.
Resumo: Natural estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that include the main active hormones, 17ß-estradiol (E2), estrone and estriol. Among these compounds, E2 is recognized to be the most active estrogen synthesized in female ovaries. Environmental problems due to estrogenic compounds are mainly related to aquatic environments. Indeed, numerous studies confirmed the occurrence of these substances at concentrations of toxicological concern (e.g., the feminization of fish in large rivers and toxicological effects on wildlife). Generally, the main sources of estrogens are recognized as treated and untreated municipal and industrial effluents, as well as livestock wastes from agricultural practices, as sewage and manure often used as fertilizers. Moreover the steroid hormones found in the urine of mammals are largely present as inactive conjugates, however the behavior of these forms will deconjugate to rapidly release the free hormones in the environment. As a consequence, large quantities of estrogens are spread in environmental waters, where they may sorb to sediments and persist for relatively long periods. Recently, the development of new analytical equipment, namely tandem mass spectrometers coupled to LC and GC systems, allowed improvements in the sensitivity, selectivity, and speed of analysis. Such improvements in sensitivity and selectivity could also be accomplished by innovative sample preparation techniques, most of them with the added benefit to be easy to execute, cost effective, and environmental friendly. Concerning the evaluation of the biological effects of estradiol, several methods have recently been developed: on whole organisms (vitellogenine assay), cells (cell proliferation), yeast estrogen screen, ER CALUX and molecular assays. In this chapter, various aspects of the estradiol presence in environmental waters are discussed. An overview of the current legislation related to water quality is given. The work then focuses on the health and environmental impacts and evaluation methods. Then, finally, the example case studies illustrate the health effects of estradiol and its environmental impact.
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.18/2108
ISBN: ISBN: 978-1-62808-963-9
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