Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.18/1382
Título: Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2011. Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)
Autor: EARS-Net Management Team & National representatives of EARS-Net
Palavras-chave: EARS-Net
Resistência aos Antimicrobianos
Data: 2012
Editora: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
Resumo: The results presented in this report are based on antimicrobial resistance data from invasive isolates reported to EARS-Net by 29 EU/EEA countries in 2012 (data referring to 2011), and on trend analyses of EARSS/EARS-Net data reported by the participating countries during the period 2008 to 2011. The results show a general Europe-wide increase of antimicrobial resistance in the gram-negative pathogens under surveillance (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), whereas the occurrence of resistance in the gram-positive pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) appears to be stabilising or even decreasing in some countries. For most pathogen–antimicrobial combinations, large inter-country variations are evident. In 2011, the most alarming evidence of increasing antimicrobial resistance in Europe came from data on combined resistance (resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides) in E. coli and in K. pneumoniae. For both of these pathogens, more than one third of the reporting countries had significantly increasing trends of combined resistance over the last four years. The high and increasing percentage of combined resistance observed for K. pneumoniae means that for some patients with life-threatening infections, only a few therapeutic options remain available, e.g. carbapenems. However since 2010, carbapenem-resistance has increased in a number of countries, further aggravating the situation. For P. aeruginosa, combined resistance is also common, with 15% of the isolates resistant to at least three of the antimicrobial classes under surveillance. The seemingly unimpeded increase of antimicrobial resistance in the major gram-negative pathogens will unavoidably lead to loss of therapeutic treatment options. In parallel, other trends of antimicrobial resistance reported to EARS-Net indicate that national efforts on infection control and containment of resistance are effective, as illustrated by the trends for meticillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA), antimicrobial-resistant S. pneumoniae and antimicrobial-resistant enterococci, for which the situation appears generally stable or even improving in some countries. For MRSA, these observations are consistent with reports from the national surveillance programmes of some Member States and recent scientific studies on the results of infection control efforts. Large inter-country variations can be noted for S. pneumoniae, but non-susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials has remained relatively stable in Europe during recent years, and this observation was confirmed by the 2011 data. High-level aminoglycoside resistance in E. faecalis seems stable in Europe and several countries which previously reported relatively high levels of resistance now have decreasing trends. Likewise, the occurrence of vancomycin-resistance in E. faecium is stabilising or decreasing. For several antimicrobial–pathogen combinations, e.g. fluoroquinolone-resistance in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and for MRSA, a north-to-south gradient is evident in Europe. In general, lower resistance percentages are reported in the north and higher percentages in the south of Europe. These geographical differences may reflect differences in infection control practices and antimicrobial use in the reporting countries. Prudent use of antimicrobial agents and comprehensive infection control measures should be cornerstones of effective prevention and control efforts aimed at reducing the selection and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.
Descrição: EARS-Net Management Team & National representatives of EARS-Net (Manuela Caniça, Vera Manageiro, Eugénia Ferreira)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.18/1382
ISBN: 978-92-9193-398-3
ISSN: 1831-9491
Aparece nas colecções:DDI - Relatórios científicos e técnicos

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