Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.18/1375
Título: Diversity of β-lactamase-encoding genes among Gram-negative isolates from water samples in Northern Portugal
Autor: Manageiro, Vera
Ferreira, Eugénia
Figueira, Vânia
Manaia, Célia M.
Caniça, Manuela
Palavras-chave: Water
Resistência aos Antimicrobianos
Data: 2012
Resumo: Water has been recognized as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), where the presence of mobile genetic elements, including plasmids, favors their dissemination. It is noteworthy that non- pathogenic environmental organisms, where plasmids encoding multiple ARG are prevalent, can provide resistance to most classes of antimicrobials including :-lactams, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin, fosfomycin, quinolones, among others. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of ARGs, related with :-lactam and quinolone resistance, in Gram-negative bacteria isolates from surface and raw and treated waste water environments. Water samples were collected from different environments within an urban water cycle in the region of Northern Portugal, which included treated and raw wastewater, water to the consumers and water surface. Screening of antimicrobial susceptibility of 56 Gram-negative isolates (20 Escherichia coli, 8 Citrobacter spp., 7 Klebsiella spp., 6 Kluyvera spp., 4 Sphingomonas panni, 2 Enterobacter spp., 1 Acinetobacter johnsonii, 3 Aeromonas veronii, 1 Hafnia alvei, 1 Pantoea agglomerans, 1 Roultella ornithinolytica, 1 Serratia sp., 1 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia), identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis using universal primers, was performed by disk diffusion method. Interpretative reading of susceptibilities allowed to direct the search for antibiotic resistant genes. PCR and sequencing were used to screen and identify beta-lactamase- and plasmid- mediated quinolone resistance (PMQRs)-encoding genes. All isolates were also screened for the presence of class 1 integrons. PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) was used to type the resistance plasmids of the blaGES-5- producing isolate among the major incompatibility (Inc) groups, specifically FIA, FIB, FIC, HI1, HI2, I1-I , L/M, N, P, W, T, A/C, K, B/O, X, Y, F, and FIIA. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the GES-5 K. pneumoniae-producing isolate was performed according to the Institute Pasteur scheme (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/genopole/PF8/mlst/Kpneumoniae.html). Overall, 16/56 isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR), i.e. presenting a reduced susceptibility to 3 or more structurally unrelated antibiotics, suggesting a great diversity of resistance mechanisms. Noteworthy, 10 isolates (4 S. panni, 1 A. johnsonii, 3 A. veronii, 1 K. pneumoniae, and 1 S. maltophilia) showed nonsusceptibility to carbapenems, which constitutes one of the last resorts on the antimicrobial therapy. Their phenotypic and molecular characterization revealed the expression of several enzymes: the naturally occurring carbapenemase in one S. maltophilia, ImiS in three A. veronii, both MBLs, and OXA-type carbapenemase in one A. johnsonii, responsible for their intrinsic resistance; the class A GES-5-producing K. pneumoniae isolate belonged to a novel MLST sequence type, the ST961 (18-22-18-90-142-13-179). PBRT of the plasmid-carrying blaGES-5 gene showed that it did not belong to any of the Inc groups tested. No carbapenemases were found in the 4 S. panni isolates. The :-lactam resistance, carbapenem susceptibility, found in 33 isolates was justified by the presence of various Class A (12 blaTEM-1 with distinct promoters, 6 blaSHV) and different Class C :-lactamase-encoding genes (blaCMY, blaACC, blaACT), some here firstly described: blaCMY-65 (JF780936), blaCMY-89 (HE819403), blaCMY-90 (HE819404), blaACT-13 (HE819402) and blaACC-5 (HE819401). Class 1 integrons were detected among 6 of TEM- 1-producing isolates. Together, the beta-lactamases identified explain the level of beta-lactam resistance. Besides quinolone resistance detected, none PMQR were identified, suggesting chromosomal alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining region. This study identified ARGs related not only to commonly used antibiotics, but also to carbapenems, providing, at our knowledge, the first description of a GES-5-producing Enterobacteriaceae recovered in an environmental setting. The study highlights the need of surveillance of these antibiotic resistance mechanisms in environmental backgrounds, since it represents a liable reservoir of potential pathogenic resistant bacteria. Worryingly, recent studies demonstrated that while the WWTP reduced the bacterial load, the treatment is inefficient to remove antibiotic resistant bacteria.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.18/1375
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